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A+: MMC to manage the computer

The Computer Management console window has the majority of tools needs to manage your Windows machine, shown in two panes. Open it with:

    • Click Start, then right-click Computer/My Computer and select Manage

    • Navigate to Start, All Programs, Administrative Tools, Computer Management

    • Open the Run prompt (Windows+R) then type compmgmt.msc

The Device Manager, Event Viewer, Local Users and Groups, Services, and disk tools such as Disk Management appear in the console.

Ever since XP, the Management Console (MMC) is a “master” console with multiple snap-ins which can be added.  It shows the last snap-in used and preserves all previously used consoles, so management is easier and quicker.

Launch it by opening the Run prompt and entering MMC to open a blank console.  {Control-M} or File | Add/Remove Snap-in allows you to click the Add button to select the consoles you want such as Computer Management, Performance Logs and Alerts, or ActiveX Controls. You can also change the “mode” that the user works in when accessing the MMC—for example Author mode, which has access to everything, and User mode, which has various levels of limitation.

When finished, save the MMC, and consider adding it as a shortcut within the desktop or in the Quick Launch area, or add a keyboard shortcut to open it. The next time you open it, it will remember all of the console windows you added, and will start you at the location you were in when you closed the program.

Version 3.0, the Vista version, can be added to XP. Search at www.microsoft.com for “Microsoft Management Console 3.0 for Windows XP” and download it.



A+: Device Manager, a System Management Tool -2

To see more information about a specific device, double-click the device to open its properties sheet. Device properties sheets have a General tab and some combination of other tabs:

    • General— Displays device type, manufacturer, location, status, troubleshoot button, and usage. All devices.

    • Properties— Device-specific settings. Applies to multimedia devices.

    • Driver— Driver details and version information. All devices.

    • Details— Technical details about the device (added in Windows XP SP2). All devices.

    • Policies— Optimizes external drives for quick removal or performance. USB, FireWire, and eSATA drives.

    • Resources— Hardware resources such as IRQ, DMA, Memory and I/O port address. Applies to I/O devices.

,     • Volumes— Drive information such as status, type, capacity, and so on. Click Populate to retrieve information. Applies to hard disk drives.

    • Power— Power available per port. Applies to USB root hubs and generic hubs.

    • Power Management— Specifies device-specific power management settings. Applies to USB, network, keyboard, and mouse devices.

Virtually all recent systems support Plug and Play (PnP) hardware with automatic resource allocation by a combination of the PnP BIOS and Windows. However, if you need to determine the hardware resources in use in a particular system, click View and select Resources by type. For example, a typical XP system and its ACPI power management enables IRQs above 15, and sharing of PCI IRQs 17, 20, 22, and 23 by multiple devices.



A+: Device Manager, a System Management Tool -1

Device Manager shows devices which are installed bycategorie, specific installed devices, and helps troubleshoot problems with devices.

To use it in Vista/7, follow these steps:

    1.  Start | right-click on Computer | select Properties - the System window will appear.
    2. On the left side under Tasks, click the Device Manager link.

To use it in XP/2000:

    1. Control Panel | Open System Properties  or right-click My Computer and select Properties.
    2. Pick the Hardware tab then choose Device Manager.

To view the devices in a specific category, click the plus (+) sign next to the category name,

    Note 1: There are two other ways to launch Device Manager. The first is by using the Search box within the Start menu. Just type device manager and then click the link for Device Manager that appears in the results box. The second is from the Computer Management console window. It opens the same way in Vista and XP. To open this, right-click on Computer (My Computer in XP), and select  Manage. This displays the Computer Management window; from there click Device Manager in the left window pane. Get in the habit of using Computer Management. It has lots of common settings in one location. Another way to open Computer Management is by going to the Run prompt and typing compmgmt.msc.

    Note 2: Different systems will have different categories listed in Device Manager, as Device Manager only lists categories for installed hardware.



A+: Command Prompt, plus the Elevated Mode for Vista/7

The command prompt allows you to type in programs with options , mostly for diagnosis, repair, and troubleshooting.  

You can start a command-prompt session by clicking on the Command prompt option in the Start menu; it’s usually located in the Accessories menu on most versions of Windows. However, it’s faster to use the Run command:

    • In XP/2000, do Start | Run |  type cmd | click OK.

    • In Vista and 7, do Start | type cmd | press Enter, or press {Ctrl+Shift+Enter} to run in elevated mode (needed for some powerful executables).

    • In any version: Hold down the Window key and press the letter R then release both {Win+R}



A+: Windows Explorer started from the Command Line

Explorer.exe can be launched from the command prompt with your choice of these options: /n, /e, /root (plus an object), and /select (plus an object):

/n  Open a single-pane window, normally the root of the Windows-installed drive (XP/2000)
/e  Open in default view (XP/2000)
/root,<object> Open window view of the object
/select,<object> Open window view of the specified folder, file or program

As the following examples demonstrate, the command line options can be used with local or network files and folders:

    • Example 1: Explorer /select,X:\Program Files\Acme\Coyote.exe—Opens a window view with Coyote.exe selected.

    • Example 2: Explorer /e,/root,C:\Program Files\Acme\RoadRunner.exe—Opens Explorer with drive C: expanded and RoadRunner.exe selected.

    • Example 3: Explorer /root,\\TestSvr\TestShare—Opens a window view of the specified share.

    • Example 4: Explorer /root,\\OtherSvr\OtherApps,select,OtherApp.exe—Opens a window view of the specified share with OtherApp.exe selected.



A+: FORMAT and removable magnetic media

Although floppy disks, USB flash memory drives, and removable-media drives are preformatted at the factory, Format is still useful as a means to

    • Erase the contents of a disk quickly, especially if it contains many files or folders.
    • Place new sector markings across the disk.
    • Create a bootable disk that can be used to run MS-DOS programs.

Formatting Floppy and Hard Disks with Windows Explorer

You can use Windows Explorer to format both hard drives and floppy disks. Right-click the drive you want to format, select Format, and the Format options for Windows are displayed (Windows 2000’s options are almost identical, except for the lack of the MS-DOS startup disk option).

Windows 2000 doesn’t offer the Make an MS-DOS Startup Disk option, but is otherwise similar.




The FORMAT command rebuilds an empty file system on a floppy disk, removable-media disk, or a hard disk. In the process, the contents of the disk are overwritten, or the index of the files is erased ('quick' format).

FORMAT works in very different ways, depending on whether it is used on a hard or floppy disk. When Format is used on a hard drive, it creates a master boot record, two file allocation tables, and a root directory (also referred to as the root folder). The rest of the drive is checked for disk surface errors—any defective areas are marked as bad to prevent their use by the operating system. Format appears to “destroy” the previous contents of a hard disk, but if you use Format on a hard disk by mistake, third-party data recovery programs can be used to retrieve data from the drive. This is possible because most of the disk surface is not changed by Format.

If a floppy disk, USB flash memory drive, or removable-media disk is prepared with Format and the unconditional /U option is used from the command line, or the Windows Explorer Full Format option is used, sector markings (a sector equals 512 bytes) are created across the surface of the floppy disk before other disk structures are created, destroying any previous data on the disk. If the Quick Format or Safe Format option is used, the contents of the disk are marked for deletion but can be retrieved with third-party data recovery software.

Note: The hard disk format process performed by the Format command (which creates the file system) is sometimes referred to as a high-level format to distinguish it from the low-level format used by hard drive manufacturers to set up magnetic structures on the hard drive. When floppy disks are formatted with the Full or Unconditional options, Format performs both a low-level and high-level format on the floppy disk surface. Completely erasing a hard drive with a magnetic bulk-eraser makes the drive permanently unusable as the low-level formatting can't be put back on a hard drive with FORMAT.




You can test disk drives for problems and errors with the Chkdsk.exe program. It runs from the command line or from the Windows GUI. Check Now shows up before Defragmentation and Backup in the Windows disk Tools menu for a reason: Check your drive for errors first before you perform a defrag or a backup!

Automatically fixing file system errors with recovery attempts of bad sectors also is a Chkdsk option. If you decide to automatically fix file system errors, Chkdsk will be set to run at the next restart, required since Chkdsk needs sole access to the drive. Chkdsk performs a three-phase test of the drive after the system is rebooted but before the desktop appears.

You can also run Chkdsk from the command prompt. For options, type Chkdsk /? from the command prompt.

In Vista, you will need to run this command in elevated mode:

    • Start |All Programs | Accessories | Command Prompt | Right-click Command Prompt | select Run as Administrator | Click Continue at the permission window.

    • Start | type cmd | press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to execute cmd.exe in elevated mode | Click Continue at the permission window.

If a drive is 'dirty' (has errors), Chkdsk launches automatically at boot up; to change this, run Chkdsk with with  options from the command prompt, and chkdsk /?  from a command prompt shows you the choices.



A+: Vista and Backup Status and Configuration

Backup Status and Configuration replaces NTBackup in Vista. It can back up individual files as does Windows XP’s NTBackup and also also create up an entire image of your system  to the removable media of your choice, for example DVD,-R, with Complete PC Backup, using these steps:

    1. Launch the Complete PC Backup with   Start | All | Programs | Accessories | System Tools | Backup Status and Configuration.
    2. Click on the Complete PC Backup button.
    3. Choose Create a Backup Now, and follow the directions. Have a lot of blanks ready that can hold an image of your operating system, such as DVD-R.

Backup vs Copy/Xcopy/Drag & Drop?

When planning to use a backup program or file copy to protect a file, think about these facts:

    • Backups are typically compressed; file copies performed with COPY or XCOPY or with drag and drop from the Windows GUI generally are not (although open source ZIP utilities can provide a compressed command-line backup).

    • Backups can span a large file onto two or more separate pieces of supported media; COPY, XCOPY, and drag and drop from the Windows GUI cannot subdivide a large file (although 7-Zip from 7-zip.org can).

    • Backups must be restored by the same or compatible program; files copied by COPY, XCOPY, or drag and drop can be retrieved by Windows Explorer and standard Windows programs.

    • Backups created by NTBackup can be stored to tape, floppy disk, or other types of removable storage such as iOmega's Zip (no relation to ZIP utilities) drives (but not rewritable CD or DVD) as well as external hard disks; COPY and XCOPY can work only with drives that can be accessed through a drive letter or a UNC (Universal Naming Convention) network path. However, COPY, XCOPY, and drag and drop from the Windows GUI can be used with CD-RW and CD-R media that have been formatted for UDF (drag-and-drop) file copying. Note that third-party backup utilities can use rewriteable CD and DVD media as well as other types of media.

Essentially, if you want to retrieve the information at any time, use drag and drop from the Windows GUI or copy, xcopy.exe, or xcopy32.exe from the command prompt. However, if you need to back up very large files, an entire system image, want to save space, and don’t mind restoring the files with a specific program, use NTBackup (XP and 2000), Backup Status and Configuration (Vista), or a third-party backup program.



A+: NTBackup

XP and 2000 include a backup program that can be run from the Windows GUI or from the command line, NTBackup. It runs in interactive mode or in wizard mode

    Note:  The Microsoft Backup utility for Windows XP Home Edition must be installed manually from the \ValueAdd\MSFT\NTBACKUP folder on the Windows XP Home Edition CD.

 Launch it from:

    • From the System Tools submenu of the Start menu’s Accessories submenu
    • From the command line (ntbackup.exe; for command-line options, open Help and Support Center and type ntbackup into the Search box)
    • From the Tools menu of the drive properties sheet; choose Backup

NTBackup supports backups to a wide variety of drive types, including tape drives, floppy disk drives, removable-media drives such as Zip, Jaz, and Rev drives, and external hard disks. A backup can be saved to a rewritable CD or DVD drive as long as the backup fits on a single disc, however, the backup file must be created first, it cannot be burned directly to the disc during the backup process.

During the backup process, you can specify the following:

    • Which drive(s) to back up
    • Which files to back up—whether to select all data files or new and changed files only
    • Whether to back up the Windows Registry (part of system state data)
    • Where to create the backup—to tape drive, floppy disk, another hard disk, or a removable-media drive
    • Whether to replace an existing backup on the backup medium or to append the backup to existing backup files
    • How to run the backup—whether to use data compression, protect the backup with a password, verify the backup, and use volume shadow copy (which enables open files to be backed up)

XP added ASR, the Automated System Recovery backup/restore to Windows. It allows rebuilding a Windows install of a system failure, but does not support the ERD (Emergency Repair Disk) of WIndows 2000.

If you need to restore backup files created with NTBackup to a system running Windows Vista, download and install Windows NT Backup - Restore Utility from the Microsoft website. This utility also requires that you enable Removable Storage Management.



A+: Security and Permissions for Files and Folders

Ever since Windows 2000, Windows drives using NTFS have an extra tab, Security, on the file and folder properties sheet, which controls who can access and change a file.

Specific users, or groups of users, can have these rights:

 Full Control (incl. delete)
 Modify - change a file
 Read & Execute - open and run a file
 Read - see into a file
 Write - replace file contents
 List Folder Contents - see what's inside a folder.

The Security tab shows users and groups with rights to a file or foder above, and the bottom section allows you to determine what permissions that person or group has. You can change the permissions in either section.

However, Simple File Sharing in XP will disable the Security tab and therefore is not recommended for business use. You can disable that in Computer or My Computer or in Windows Explorer with Tools | Folder Options | View (tab) | scroll to bottom | clear the checkmark for Use Simple File Sharing.



A+: Encrypting and compressing files in NTFS

Encryption and compression are available since Windows 2000 and later on drives formatted with the NTFS file system. To set these options for a file or folder in Windows, you can use Windows Explorer or the command-line programs Compact (to compress a file) or Cipher (to encrypt a file).

To select or deselect the archive attribute, or to set encryption or compression options on a drive using the NTFS file system, click the Advanced button underneath Properties in Windows Explorer. Select Compression to reduce the disk space used by the file, or Encryption to restrict access to only the system’s administrator or the user who encrypted the file. Files can be compressed or encrypted, but not both.

If you are encrypting the file, Windows recommends that you encrypt the folder containing the file (which will also encrypt the file).

Only the user who originally encrypted the file (or the system’s Administrator) can open an encrypted file and view its contents. Only the Administrator can apply compression to a file or folder.

If you need to encrypt an entire drive, Bitllocker is included in Enterprise and Ultimate versions of Windows since Vista, and open source utilities like TrueCrypt offer more advanced and diverse features.




Windows does not automatically make sure that a new file is placed at the end of the previous file when writing to hard drives, and as files are added, deleted, expanded or contracted, the space between files grows. Windows also does not make sure that files stay in a consecutive series of locations, and sometimes will scatter a file all over a hard drive. This slows down the computer, as the hard drive must jump all over the drive locations to retrieve file data, a problem which grows with time.

Therefore, disk defragmentation tool has been included to help regain lost read/write performance.

Defragment can be run in the following ways:

    • From the Accessories menu’s System Tools submenu (Disk Defragmenter)

    • From a drive’s properties sheet’s Tools tab (Defragment Now)

    • From the command line (a feature introduced in Windows XP): defrag (type defrag /? for options)

The XP/2000 defragmenters and many third party defragmentation programs have an Analyze feature to test if defragmentation is necessary. Vista omitted this in the interface, but its version of DEFRAG does analyze the disk automatically before defragmenting.



A+: File attributes and Extensions

ATTRIB, a comand-line application, shows you details about the metadata of a file; whether it can be changed (R), if it has been archived (A), if it is a System file (S) and if it is Hidden (H) from appearing in Windows Explorer and with DIR.  + Sets an attibute, and - clears it; /S alters files in the current directory and subdirectories beneath it, and /D modifies folders as well as files.

The Recovery Console in XP and 2000 doesn't have the /S or /D options but instead offers +C to compress a file and -C to extract a file from compression.

Windows Explorer allows you to right-click on a file, select Properties from the Context Menu which appears, and then see and change the attributes in lieu of using ATTRIB from the command line.

Extensions are the part of the file name following the last period. Files with the extensions .BAT, .CMD, .COM and .EXE can be run from the command line prompt, and are considered Executable; other files in the system are consider Data files, even if they're part of a program and the program won't run without them.



A+: Short filenames for DOS and how they're made from long filenames

Ever since XP, Windows supports LFN, long file and folder names. They cab be as long as  255 characters and can have spaces and most other alphanumeric characters, except for illegal characters which are: 
\ / : * ? " < > |

Names of files can have more than one period, but only the characters after the last period are considered the 'extension'; applications commonly have one or more default extension types, such as .DOC for Word, .XLS for Excel, and .HTML or .HTM for web browsers. 

 So operating systems like DOS which don't have LFN support can access files, Windows also stores a DOS alias (also known as the MS-DOS name) as well as the LFN when a file or folder is created. The DOS alias name is created from the first six letters of the LFN, replacing illegal characters with an underscore, removing spaces, and ignoring additional periods in the LFN. To distinguish between different files with the same DOS alias names, the first DOS alias name in a folder is indicated with a tilde and the number 1 (~1); the second as ~2, and so on. If more than nine files with the same initial letters are saved to a given folder, the first five letters are used for files numbered ~10 and up, and so forth. The three-letter file extension is reused for the DOS alias.




Ping is another networking command, and simply shows if you can connect to a specified address (wither a numeric address such as, an open Google DNS server, or www.google.com), as well how long (in thousandths of a second, or milliseconds) it takes for a signal to go through the internet to a specified address and back again.

It uses ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) and shows any loss of data packets (which in general mean a serious problem), as well as the quickest, slowest, and mean average times for a round-trip.

Some servers and networks won't reply to a ping for security purposes, and ping can be abused to flood a targeted machine or network with so many pings it can't do anything else (a Denial-Of-Service Attack).

The term can also be used to mean any connection test not using ICMP, and video game servers often send a similar test using UDP (the Universal Datagram Protocol) to test the quality of an internet connection to a gaming console.



Dropbox alert



One of the commands _not_ inherited from MS-DOS is ipconfig which shows yr PC's current IP address, subnet mask & default gateway, as well as the DNS servers used and other networking information. Ipconfig /all shows it all; ipconfig omits DNS and other information, and ipconfig /? shows available options.

Many machines have multiple network adapters, so when using ipconfig. make sure to look for the networking connection currently in use.

IPv6 is inevitably coming, someday, but nearly all connections use IPv4 and that's the data you should look at now.

On networks where the IP address is assigned by a server using DHCP, ipconfig /release followed by ipconfig /renew obtains a new IP address lease and solves some networking fail-to-connect problems.



A+: Internal Commands list

These commands of the Windows Command Prompt are built into CMD.EXE and do not need to load from an external file: DATE, TIME, COPY, DEL, ERASE, DIR, MD, MKDIR, CD, CHDIR, RD, RMDIR,  VER, VOL, SET, PROMPT, PATH, ECHO, CLS, HELP and TYPE. 

Command-prompt functions and utilities can be used to operate on a group of files with similar names by using one of the following wildcard symbols:
 ? replaces a single character, and you can use ??? to find any three characters, excluding two or four characters.
 * replaces a group of characters.



A+: Command Line uses

Invoke the command prompt to run DOS-style apps primarily for diagnosis, repair, and troubleshooting.  
You can start a command-prompt session in Windows by clicking on the Command Prompt option in the Start menu; it’s usually located in the Accessories menu on most versions of Windows. But it’s faster to use the Run command:
• In Windows XP/2000—Click Start > Run. Then, type cmd and click OK.
• In Windows Vista/7—Click Start type cmd, and then press Enter, or press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to run in elevated mode (might be necessary for some commands).
• In any version—Click {Win-R} 

HELP shows a list of commands you can use at the Command Prompt, and HELP NAMEOFPROGRAM or NAMEOFPROGRAM /? shows more details about that particular command.

Some of those programs are embedded in CMD.EXE but other apps are executables and reside in other .EXE or .COM files.



A+: Working with Folders/Directories

Windows provides two ways to work with folders (also called directories): visually, through Windows Explorer (which you also start by using the Computer / My Computer icons), or at the command line (MKDIR/MD, CHDIR/CD, RMDIR/RD).  

To navigate between folders in Windows Explorer, follow these procedures:
• To view the subfolders (subdirectories) in a folder (directory), click the plus (+) sign next to the folder name in the left pane of Windows Explorer.
• To view the contents of a folder (including files and other folders), click the folder in the left pane of Windows Explorer. The contents of the folder appear in the right pane.
• To navigate to the previous view, click the left-hand arrow above the address bar.
• To move to the next view, click the right-hand arrow.
• To navigate to the next higher folder in the folder hierarchy, click the up-arrow/folder button.
To create a new folder in Windows Explorer, follow these steps:
  • Open the folder in which you want to create a new folder. The folder’s contents are displayed in the right pane.
  • Right-click an empty space in the right pane and select New, Folder 
  • Enter the new folder name and press Enter.

To remove a folder from either Windows Explorer or My Computer views, follow these steps.
  • Right-click the folder and select Delete.
  • Click Yes on the Confirm Folder Delete dialog.

The folder and its contents move to the Recycle Bin. To bypass the Recycle Bin in deleting, hold down either Shift key and select Delete and then click Yes.



A+: Checking and changing file systems

Follow these steps to determine what file system was used to prepare a Windows hard drive:
Step 1. Open Windows Explorer.
Step 2. Right-click the drive letter in the Explorer Window and select Properties.
Step 3. The Properties sheet for the drive will list FAT32 for a drive prepared with FAT32, and NTFS for a drive prepared with NTFS.

Windows includes the command-line Convert.exe program to enable users to change the current FAT32 file system on a drive to NTFS without reformatting the drive (which would wipe out all of the information on the drive).  To convert a drive’s file system using Convert.exe, follow these steps:
Step 1. Open a command-prompt window. (For Windows Vista, refer to the options that follow this list.)
Step 2. Type Convert x: /fs:ntfs and press Enter.

The x: is a variable. Replace it with the drive you want to convert, for example c:, d:, f:, and so on.
To see advanced options for Convert, type convert /?.
In Windows Vista, you will need to run this command in elevated mode. There are several ways to open a command-line in elevated mode. Here are two options:
• Click Start, All Programs, Accessories, Command Prompt. Right-click Command Prompt and select Run as Administrator. Click Continue at the permission window.
• Click Start and type cmd. Then press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to execute cmd.exe in elevated mode. Click Continue at the permission window. 



A+: File Systems

Partitions hold file systems, which describe how data and drives are put together and work. Windows file systems determine:
• The rules for how large a logical drive (drive letter) can be, and whether the hard disk can be used as one big drive letter, several smaller drive letters, or must be multiple drive letters.
• How efficiently a system stores data; the less wasted space, the better.
• How secure a system is against tampering.
• Whether a drive can be accessed by more than one operating system.
Windows normally use two different file systems for hard disks, FAT32 and NTFS, plus the original FAT12 aka FAT for floppy disks and file systems for CD and DVD discs.


FAT32 was introduced in 1995, replacing the earlier FAT16, and is supported by Windows Vista, XP, and 2000, although NTFS is preferred. FAT32 has the following characteristics:
• The 32-bit file allocation table, which allows for 268,435,456 entries (232) per drive. Remember, an entry can be a folder or an allocation unit used by a file.
• The root directory can be located anywhere on the drive and can have an unlimited number of entries. Hooray!
• FAT32 uses an 8KB allocation unit size for drives as large as 16GB.
• The maximum logical partition size allowed is 2TB (more than 2 trillion bytes).
You can use FAT32 to format hard disks, flash memory, and removable media drives. However, FAT32 is recommended for hard disks only if the hard disk must also be accessed by dual-booting with an older version of Windows, for example Windows 95, 98, or Me, which do not support NTFS.
The New Technology File System (NTFS) is the native file system of Windows Vista, XP, and 2000. As implemented in Windows Vista and XP, NTFS has many differences from FAT32, including
Access Control— Different levels of access control by group or user can be configured for both folders and individual files.
Built-in compression— Individual files, folders, or an entire drive can be compressed without the use of third-party software.
A practical limit for partition sizes of 2TB— The same as with FAT32, although partitions theoretically can reach a maximum size of 16 exabytes (16 billion billion bytes).
Individual Recycle Bins— Unlike FAT32, NTFS includes a separate recycle bin for each user.
Support for the Encrypting File System (EFS)—EFS enables data to be stored in an encrypted form. No password, no access to files!
Support for mounting a drive— Drive mounting enables you to address a removable-media drive’s contents, for example, as if its contents are stored on your hard disk. The hard disk’s drive letter is used to access data on both the hard disk and the removable media drive.
Disk quota support— The administrator of a system can enforce rules about how much disk space each user is allowed to use for storage.
Hot-swapping— Removable-media drives that have been formatted with NTFS (such as Jaz, Orb, and others) can be connected or removed while the operating system is running..
Indexing— The Indexing service helps users locate information more quickly when the Search tool is used.


Windows Vista, XP, and 2000 can’t create a FAT32 partition larger than 32GB. However, if the partition already exists, they can use it.



Android 2.3 cellphone for $99 w/ $19/mo plan

http://www.mobilemag.com/2011/11/08/republic-wireless-19month-unlimited-plan-has-soft-caps details a $19/mo cellphone plan for a $199 Android cellphhone ($99 w/ the discount code “welcome19″) running version 2.3 aka 'Ice Cream".  This depends on using WiFi to talk most of the time, with 'soft' limits of 550 minutes, 150 texts, and 300MB of data which you should not exceed when you're on 3G cellular; no limits apply when you're on WiFi. The phone is basic but decent, and if most of your time is spent inside where there's WiFi, it's an intriguing deal.

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A+: Disk Management

Although you can use text-based applications like FDISK to prepare and configure hard drives, the Disk Management snap-in of the Computer Management console is easier to use.  To launch it, right-click on Computer / My Computer | Manage | and in the left-hand task pane, click on Disk Management.

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc738101(WS.10).aspx provides more information on disk status results from Disk Management.

You can also use the app to give names to paths within NTFS folders:    

  • Right-click the partition or volume you want to mount and select Change Drive Letters and Paths.
  • In the displayed window click Add.
  • Then browse to the empty folder you wish to mount the volume to, and click OK for both windows.

Vista and 7 allow changing the partition without destroying data; you need thirst party utilities to do that with XP and earlier systems.



A+: Managing Disk Partitions

Hard drives (whether PATA, SATA or SCSI) and drive-like drvices (such as USB Flash Memory Drives) must be partitioned before use (although the latter are preformatted before packaging). Repartitioning destroys any data on the drive so BE CAREFUL.

A partition determines if a drive can boot a PC, how many drive letters the hard disk can have, and whether space is set aside for future or other use.

Once the partition is created, it defines a drive letter for the logical drive. Phyisical and logical drives must then be formatted to build the file system before they can hold data.

Only a primary partition can be bootable and it can only have one drive letter. Only one primary partition can be active in a Windows PC. If you have a simple system, that's all you need, and most systems are set up this way.

Extended partitions can't boot and don't have drive letters themselves, but you can create one or more logical drives which then can be formatted. These partitions can hold data, including image files used to recover a PC to its original state.



A+: Hibernation and the Page File

Start | Shut Down | Hibernate makes (or replaces) a file from 250MB to 1GB+ in the root named hiberfile.sys and it can be deleted after reviving with no risk. It should be deleted before defragging with the stock defragmenter as it can't be moved or reorganized.

XP and 2000 can clear it with Start | Settings | Control Panel | Power Options | Hibernate | and clear the Enable Hibernation tickbox. Check that tickbox on to allow Hibernation once more.

In Vista do {Win+R} CMD powercfg.exe/hibernate off to disable and {Win+R} CMD powercfg.exe/hibernate on to reenable hibernation.

Another root file which can't be moved or reorganized is pagefile.sys which is used to temporarily hold the contents of memory when apps and processes exceed the available memory. {Win+R} CMD attrib -s -h pagefile.sys followed by del pagefile.sys can delete it, but please only do that immediately using the Control Panel | System | Advanced | Performance | Settings | Advanced | Virtual memory | Change to set the minimum and maximum size to double to triple the current size of memory, reboot with {F8} into Safe Mode to minimize memory use . Then, immediately perform a defragmentation, then reboot the PC into normal mode so the pagefile will be recreated in contiguous space.



A+: Registry backup in differing Windows versions

Windows 2000 and XP has their own backup app; launch it with   Start | Accessories | System Tools | Backup   pick Emergency Repair Disk then on the following screen select Registry back up the Registry. For NT, load a formatted and blank disk when requested to create that Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) which does not have the Registry since it can be larger than 20MB but instead stores a Registry copy in \WinNT\Repair\RegBack.

Windows XP backup is more thorough and also backs up boot files, the COM+ Class Registration database and Windows File Protection guarded files, in a larger package called the System State. Instead of only a floppy plus copy to hard drive, this backup can be stored on tape, an external hard disk, or removable media.

Vista offers three Registry backup options:

  • The Backup Status and Configuration app performs a complete backup including the Registry. 
  • The System Restore wizard backs up the Registry when a new restore point is made.
  • REGEDIT can export the entire Registry, which can be a whopper of a file, exceeding 200MB. 

When you install new hardware or apps, make a new backup (and ERD for NT). 



A+: The Registry and its files

Multiple files under the default Windows folder in a subdirectory named SYSTEM32\CONFIG  (so that's normally C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\CONFIG) make up the Windows Registry. The files closely, but not exactly, match up with sections of the Registry.

— default.LOG has the .DEFAULT data from HKEY_USERS

— SAM.LOG keeps some of the Security Account Manager information from      HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM  (Beware: there are no user-editable keys, and don’t erase the matching Registry files!)

— SECURITY.LOG is the file with the remainder of the Security Account Manager database from HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY   (Beware: there are no user-editable keys, and don’t erase the matching Registry files!)



Each user which has booted on that machine also has:

— NTUSER.DAT.LOG for most preference settings in the \Documents and Settings\username folder for that user

— UsrClass.dat.LOGkeeps the remaining user-preference settings for file associations and applications in the \Documents and Settings\username\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Windows folder for each user



A+: NTDETECT.COM plus NTLDR in the boot process

When your PC finishes the Power-On Self Test and the 'bootstrap loader' of its system Basic Input Output System (BIOS) reads the NTLDR file from the root directory of the default Windows drive, it checks BOOT.INI (same location) to show you how many versions of Windows are available, and waits for the specified time for you to choose, before it starts the default version by loading its startup files. 

Then, it has NTDETECT.COM check for installed hardware and puts a list of same in the Registry before it loads the Windows Kernel NTOSKRNL.EXE with its Hardware Abstraction Layer HAL.DLL into memory then passes control to it after getting the device drivers which match your PC's hardware. 

If your PC's Windows drive is SCSI and its host adapter is missing an enabled BIOS onboard, it also has to call NTBOOTDD.SYS, but that's pretty rare since modern PCs almost all use Serial ATA or Parallel ATA drives (aka 'IDE') and many of the newer SCSI adapters have that onboard BIOS. 



A+: XP's boot.ini

Boot.ini is a file n the default boot drive (even if Windows is installed on a different drive letter) which configures how to start XP, and is very specifically formatted.   It can be edited by Notepad or MSConfig, or Bootcfg can revise it from wither Windows XP or from the XP Recovery Console.

The [boot loader] section specifies how long XP waits for an override command to start loading the default OS.

The [operating systems] section specifies the name to call each version of Windows on the system, and in which partition of which hard drive to find each. 

Do NOT alter boot.ini unless your PC won't boot, and if that strikes, the Microsoft Knowledge Base for XP should be your first stop to look for solutions.



A+: Files to never even _think_ about messin' with

The Vista/7 boot sequence must have these files undisturbed to boot. Many, many other files are also needed for Windows to work even semi-well, but these are essential:
  • Bootmgr the OS loader needed to start the OS, replacing NTLDR
  • BCD is in \boot\bcd and is an updated-for-EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface) version of boot.ini which tells the Boot Manager about the OS and which can be altered with MSCONFIG or by bcdedit.exe
  • Ntoskrnl.exe Bootmgr tells it to take over booting, which it completes doing
  • Hal.dll The Hardware Abstraction Layer, a go-between from different system hardware to Windows
  • The Registry's SYSTEM Key Defines the system configuration
  • Device drivers (many) Listed as need-to-load in the Registry
Likewise, XP has its own essentials:
  • NTLDR the OS loader needed to start the OS 
  • Boot.ini  tells the Boot Manager about the OS and how to load up; edit with notepad.exe at yr risk!
  • Ntdetect.com Detects your PC's hardware
  • Ntoskrnl.exe NTLDR tells it to take over booting, which it completes doing
  • Hal.dll The Hardware Abstraction Layer, a go-between from different system hardware to Windows
  • The Registry's SYSTEM Key Defines the system configuration
  • Device drivers (many) Listed as need-to-load in the Registry
Bootsect.dos only exists if you have other operating systems on the hard drive and defines where they are
Ntbootdd.sys is used only on old SCSI hard drives without an onboard SCSI BIOS in the host adapter